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Support this channel: https://paypal.me/jeffquitney OR https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney more at http://quickfound.net/ ACCOUNT OF AN OPEN-PIT COPPER MINE IN OPERATION. ILLUSTRATES THE MAIN STEPS IN EXTRACTING PURE COPPER FROM ORE. PICTURES THE PROCESSES OF BLASTING, LOADING and DISPOSING OF WASTE ROCK, LOADING ORE IN RAILROAD CARS, CRUSHING and WASHING. Originally a public domain film, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copper_extraction Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Copper extraction refers to the methods used to obtaining copper from its ores. The conversion of copper consists of a series of physical and electrochemical processes. Methods have evolved and vary with country depending on the ore source, local environmental regulations, and other factors. As in all mining operations, the ore must usually be beneficiated (concentrated). The processing techniques depend on the nature of the ore. If the ore is primarily sulfide copper minerals (such as chalcopyrite), the ore is crushed and ground to liberate the valuable minerals from the waste ('gangue') minerals. It is then concentrated using mineral flotation. The concentrate is typically then sold to distant smelters, although some large mines have smelters located nearby. Such colocation of mines and smelters was more typical in the 19th and early 20th centuries, when smaller smelters could be economic. The sulfide concentrates are typically smelted in such furnaces as the Outokumpo or Inco flash furnace or the ISASMELT furnace to produce matte, which must be converted and refined to produce anode copper. Finally, the final refining process is electrolysis. For economic and environmental reasons, many of the byproducts of extraction are reclaimed. Sulfur dioxide gas, for example, is captured and turned into sulfuric acid — which can then be used in the extraction process or sold for such purposes as fertiliser manufacture. Oxidised copper ores can be treated by hydrometallurgical extraction... The earliest evidence of cold-hammering of native copper comes from the excavation at Çaÿonü Tepesi in eastern Anatolia, which dates between 7200 to 6600 BCE. Among the various items considered to be votive or amulets there was one that looked like a fishhook and one like an awl. Another find, at Shanidar Cave in Mergasur, Iraq, contained copper beads, dates to 8,700 BCE. The world's oldest known copper mine, as opposed to usage of surface deposits, is at Timna Valley, Israel, since the fourth millennium BC, with smelting and surface deposit usage since the sixth to fifth millennium. Pločnik archaeological site in southeastern Europe (Serbia) contains the oldest securely dated[dubious – discuss] evidence of copper making at high temperature, from 5,000 BCE. The find in June 2010 extends for additional 500 years the earlier record of copper smelting from Rudna Glava (Serbia), dated to 5th millennium BCE. Copper smelting technology gave rise to the Copper Age, aka Chalcolithic Age, and then the Bronze Age. The Bronze Age would not have been possible without humans developing smelting technology... Most copper ores contain only a small percentage of copper metal bound up within valuable ore minerals, with the remainder of the ore being unwanted rock or gangue minerals, typically silicate minerals or oxide minerals for which there is often no value. In some cases, tailings have been retreated to recover lost value as the technology for recovering copper has improved. The average grade of copper ores in the 21st century is below 0.6% copper, with a proportion of economic ore minerals (including copper) being less than 2% of the total volume of the ore rock. A key objective in the metallurgical treatment of any ore is the separation of ore minerals from gangue minerals within the rock. The first stage of any process within a metallurgical treatment circuit is accurate grinding or comminution, where the rock is crushed to produce small particles...